Necrotizing enterocolitis is a condition that most commonly affect premature babies. The condition is thought to be as a result of intestinal immune immaturity and allows entry of bacteria into the wall of the intestine, causing inflammation and damage to the bowel wall. This can then lead to a perforation of the intestine, causing stool to spill into the abdomen. The end result can be severe sepsis that may be fatal. Management of the early stages of the disease consists of medical management, nutritional support and bowel rest. In cases of disease progression, perforation, or deterioration of the baby's general condition, surgery may be indicated.